Dogs eat dog food from deuka dog bowl (© Deutsche Tiernahrung Cremer)
Farmer and adviser check feed quality at the feed table
Consultation in winter garden between advisor and farmer

Raw material and nutrient lexicon

Weitere Einträge

Positive list

The positive list for straight feeding stuff s (feed materials) has been drawn up by the Standards Commission for Straight Feeding stuffs in the Central Committee of German Agriculture and published in December 2001.

Deutsche Tiernahrung Cremer uses only raw materials listed in this positive list for the production of the various feed types. The raw material lexicon of Deutsche Tiernahrung Cremer also contains only straight feeding stuffs which are also included in the positive list. For straight feeding stuffs that are included in the list, the harmlessness for the health of animals and humans must be proven. In addition, they must have a recognisable feed value, their use must be legally permissible and they must have a recognisable significance on the market.

The following table provides an overview of various terms used in the labelling and description of raw materials for animal nutrition. This list has also been compiled and published by the Standards Commission.

Term

Description

common designation

Pressing

Extraction of fat or oil from oil-rich materials or of juice from fruits or other plant products by mechanical treatment (by spindle or other presses), also with slight heat treatment

Cake (for oil-containing materials), pulp, pomace (e.g. for fruits), pressed pulp (for sugar beet)

Digestion

Release of starch granules localised in the endosperm by chemical or physical processes or breaking of ligno-cellulose compounds by alkalis (straw)

digested, starch digestion/straw digestion

Coating

Coating of feed particles, e.g. with fat to protect against degradation

coated

Steaming

Heating process under the influence of moist heat

steamed

Kilning

Drying of germinating grain during the malting process with hot air

kilned

Dehusking

Freeing the seeds of Gossypium spp. from the hair coat (lint and fuzz)

de-linterned

Desugaring

Complete or partial removal of mono- or disaccharides from molasses or other sugar-containing materials by chemical or physical processes

desugared, partially desugared

considerably exceeds

more than two thirds

Heating

General term for a series of heat treatments carried out under specific conditions to change the nutritional value or structure of the material

steam-heated, cooked, heat-treated

Extraction

Extraction of fat or oil from certain materials by extraction using organic solvents or extraction of sugar or other water-soluble components by aqueous extraction. If an organic solvent is used, the extracted material must be technically free of solvent residues

Extraction meal (in the case of materials containing oil), molasses, dried pulp (in the case of materials containing sugar or other water-soluble components)

Extrusion

Pressing or forcing material through an opening under the effect of pressure (cf. also pre-gelatinising)

extruded

Fermenting

Biochemical breakdown of carbohydrates (starch, sugar), e.g. for the purpose of alcohol production

fermented

Fat hardening

Conversion of unsaturated glycerides into saturated glycerides (hardening of oils and fats)

hardened, partially hardened

Flaking

Rolling of moist, heat-treated material

Flaking

small proportion

unavoidable portion in the course of technical processing

Hydrolysis

Breakdown into simpler chemical components by suitable treatment with water and, if necessary, enzymes, acids or alkalis

hydrolysed, partially hydrolysed

hydrothermal treatment

Heating of the product with the help of saturated steam, treatment e.g. to break down the starch

Compacting

Compression of a product for the purpose of volume reduction

compacted

Preservation

Method of preservation using physical processes or by adding organic or inorganic substances

preserved

Concentration1)

Enrichment of certain ingredients by removal of water or other components

Concentrate

Flour milling

Mechanical processing of grains to reduce grain size and facilitate separation into its constituents, especially flour, bran and semolina bran

Flour, bran, feed meal, semolina bran

Wet milling

Mechanical separation of individual components from kernels or grains, also after soaking in water, with or without the addition of sulphur dioxide, to obtain starch

Germs, gluten, starch

Parboiling

Water, heat and pressure treatment to protect the B vitamins and to improve cooking properties (rice)

parboiled

Pelleting

Special shaping by pressing with a die

Pellet, pelletised

practically free from .../as far as possible free from ...

Free of undesirable constituents according to the current state of the art

Refining

Complete or partial removal of accompanying substances from sugar, oils, fats and other natural materials by chemical or physical treatment

refined, partially refined

Purification

z. E.g. of grain; mechanical removal of black impurities such as fungus-damaged, spoiled grains incl. ergot, dust and other solid components

cleaned

Hulling2)

Complete or partial removal of the outer hull or shells of grains, seeds, fruits, nuts and other

hulled, partially hulled

Crushing

Mechanical processing of grains and other individual feedstuffs to reduce their size

Groats, crushed

Sifting

Mechanical separation of ground products of different sizes by means of sieves

sifted

technically pure

According to the technical possibilities, free or freed from other constituents

Drying

Artificial or natural dehydration

dried

Pregelatinisation

Modification of starch to substantially increase its swelling capacity in cold water

pre-gelatinised3), swollen